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闽江河口湿地植物多样性与土壤养分和微生物因子关联分析
1, 2

(1.minxizhiyejishuxueyuan, fujian longyan 364000; 2.fujiannonglindaxue yuanlinxueyuan, fuzhou 350002)

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Correlation Analysis of Plant Diversity and Soil Microecological Environmental Factors in Wetland of Minjiang Estuary
GUO Shun1, HUANG Qitang2

(1.minxi vocational and technical college, longyan, fujian 364000, china; 2.college of landscape architecture, fujian agriculture and forestry university, fuzhou 350002, china)

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为了探究闽江河口湿地植物多样性与土壤养分和微生物因子关联性,采用野外定期观测和室内化验相结合的方法,调查了2015—2019年闽江河口不同湿地(香蒲群落、苔草群落、莎草群落和芦苇群落)植物多样性特征和微生物群落等特征。结果表明:Shannon-Wiener多样性指数和Margalef丰富度指数大致表现为香蒲群落>苔草群落>莎草群落>芦苇群落,其中苔草群落和莎草群落差异不显著(p>0.05); Simpson优势度指数和McIntosh均匀度指数大致表现为芦苇群落>苔草群落>莎草群落>香蒲群落,香蒲群落由于处于湿地和绿洲的交界处,因而具有更复杂的环境,其α多样性分布水平最高,这主要在于其复杂的环境因子结构。土壤pH值大致表现为莎草群落>苔草群落>芦苇群落>香蒲群落,有机碳和全氮含量大致表现为香蒲群落>苔草群落>莎草群落>芦苇群落,土壤全磷含量不同植物差异均不显著(p>0.05)。不同植物群落土壤微生物碳源利用(AWCD)总体上呈逐渐增加的趋势,在培养24~72 h内AWCD快速增长,72 h后增长缓慢,192 h后急剧增长; 相同时间土壤微生物碳源利用大致表现为芦苇群落>香蒲群落>苔草群落>莎草群落,局部有所波动。碳水化合物和羧酸类碳源是湿地不同植物群落土壤微生物的主要碳源,其次为氨基酸类、酚酸类和聚合物类,胺类碳源的利用率最小。土壤微生物群落的物种丰富度指数(H)、均匀度指数(E)、优势度指数(Ds)和碳源利用丰富度指数(S)基本表现为芦苇群落>香蒲群落>苔草群落>莎草群落,其中优势度指数(Ds)差异均不显著(p>0.05)。相关性分析显示,土壤养分和pH与植被多样性密切相关,其中pH对植被多样性贡献为负,土壤养分对植被多样性贡献为正,是湿地不同植物群落多样性差异的重要影响因素。
The relationship between plant diversity and soil microecological environment factors in different wetlands(cattpha community, carex community, sedge community and reed community)in the estuary of Minjiang River from 2015 to 2019 was analyzed. The results show that the Shannon-wiener diversity index and the Margalef richness index decreased in the order: cattpha community>carex community>sedge community> reed community, among which there was no significant difference between carex community and sedge community(p>0.05); Simpson dominance index and McIntosh evenness index decreased in the order: reed community>carex community> sedge community>cattail community; Cattail community was located at the junction of wetland and oasis, so it had a more complex environment; Cattail community had the highest lep diversity distribution level, which was mainly due to its complex environmental factor structure; soil pH decreased in the order: sedge community>carex community>reed community>cattpha community, and the organic carbon and total nitrogen contents decreased in the order: cattpha community > carex community>sedge community>reed community in cattlia community; there was no significant difference in soil total phosphorus content among different plant communities(p>0.05); soil microbial carbon source utilization(AWCD)of different plant communities showed a general trend of gradual increase; AWCD increased rapidly within 24~72 h after culture, but slowly after 72 h, and increased sharply after 192 h; at the same time, the utilization of soil microbial carbon source decreased in the order: carex community>cattail community>carex community>sedge community, which fluctuated locally; carbohydrate and carboxylic acid carbon sources were the main carbon sources of soil microorganisms in different plant communities in wetland, followed by amino acids, phenolic acids and polymers, and amine carbon sources had the lowest utilization rate; the species richness index(H), evenness index(E), dominance index(Ds)and carbon source utilization richness index(S)of the soil microbial community decreased in the order: carex community cattaily community>carex community>sedge community in reed community, among which the differences in dominance index(Ds)were not significant(p>0.05). Correlation analysis showed that soil nutrients and pH were closely related to vegetation diversity, in which pH negatively contributed to vegetation diversity and soil nutrients positively contributed to vegetation diversity, which was the important factor affecting the diversity of different plant communities in wetlands.
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