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微地形重塑对大型排土场平台水沙及植被的影响
1, 2, 3, 1, 1

(1.shuilibumuqushuilikexueyanjiusuo, huhehaote 010020; 2.neimenggushuitubaochijiancezhan, huhehaote 010020; 3.baotoushishuitubaochigongzuozhan, neimenggu baotou 014030)

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Impact of Microtopographic Reconstruction on Runoff and Sediment Yield and Vegetation of Large Waste Dump Platform
TIAN Xiumin1, MA Chunxia2, LU Xudong3, GUO Jianying1, ZHANG Tiegang1

(1.institute of water resources for pastoral area, ministry of water resources, hohhot 010020, china; 2.inner mongolia soil and water conservation monitoring station, hohhot 010020, china; 3.baotou water and soil conservation workstation, baotou, inner mongolia 014030, china)

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备注

针对大型排土场平台治理短板,探究控制水土流失的有效办法,改善地表微环境。以大型排土场平台不同微地形改造加植物措施为研究对象,利用径流小区观测设施对研究对象次降雨产流产沙过程开展了连续观测,并进行了植物群落学特征调查。结果表明:大型排土场平台实施微地形组合加植物措施的削流、减蚀、生物多样性方面明显强于单一覆土种植措施; 实施微地形改造方法的小区年径流量及泥沙量呈逐年减少趋势,组合微地形改造方法加植物措施的削流率和减蚀率最高,分别达到62.03%和88.81%; 且对小雨强时产流和产沙的控制效果最好,与单一的覆土种植措施相比,径流量减少72.6%,泥沙量减少90.4%; 组合微地形改造加植物措施防护效果最优,多样性指数、均匀度指数和丰富度指数最高,分别为2.35,0.87,1.94; 合理的微地形组合方法加植物措施能使植被的恢复效果充分发挥,有效遏制水土流失,塑造出不同的微生境,是治理大型排土场平台“顽疾”的有效措施之一。
The effective methods to control the water and soil erosion were explored to improve the surface microenvironment in terms of the weaknesses on governing the large waste dump platform. Different microtopographic reconstruction and plant measures for large waste dump platforms were studied by using the runoff plot observation facilities to conduct continuous observation during the generation process of runoff and sediment, and the phytoecological characteristics were also investigated. The results show that the flow reduction, erosion reduction and biodiversity in the large waste dump platform with microtopographic reconstruction and plant measures were more significant than that with single soil cover and planting measures; the annual runoff and sediment loads of communities with microtopographic reconstruction methods decreased year by year, and the flow reduction and erosion reduction rates of those combining the microtopographic reconstruction and plant measures were the highest, reaching up to 62.03% and 88.81%, respectively; the control effect of the generation of runoff and sediment was the best when the heavy rain occurred; compared with the single soil cover and planting measures, the runoff volume reduced by 72.6% and the sediment load by 90.4%; the protective effect of the combined microtopographic reconstruction measures and plant measures was the best, and the diversity, evenness and richness indexes were the highest, which were 2.35, 0.87 and 1.94, respectively. Reasonable combination of microtopography and plant measures can fully play the role in the restoration effect of the vegetation, effectively curbing water and soil erosion and creating a different microenvironment, and is one of the effective measures to deal with the ‘chronic disease' of the large waste dump platform.
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