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河谷型城市“三生”空间竞争与生态环境效应——以兰州市为例
1,2, 1,2, 1,2, 2,3, 1,2

(1.xibeishifandaxue diliyuhuanjingkexuexueyuan, lanzhou 730070; 2.gansushengtudiliyongyuzonghezhengzhigongchengyanjiuzhongxin, lanzhou 730070; 3.xibeishifandaxue shehuifazhanyugonggongguanlixueyuan, lanzhou 730070)

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Competition and Eco-environmental Effect of Ecological-Production-Living Spaces in Valley City
-A Case Study of Lanzhou City

(1.college of geography and environment science, northwest normal university, lanzhou 730070, china; 2.land use and comprehensive improvement engineering research center, development and reform commission of gansu province, lanzhou 730070, china; 3.college of social development and public administration, northwest normal university, lanzhou 730070, china)

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备注

地域空间约束下,不同功能用地的空间竞争及引致的生态环境变化,深刻影响着河谷型城市的健康发展。以黄河上游兰州市为例,基于1995年和2018年土地利用和DEM数据,依据“生产—生活—生态”空间主导功能分类,通过面积变化强度、类型转移矩阵、重心转移、海拔—坡度分异、生态环境质量指数、土地利用功能转型生态贡献率等方法,解析河谷型城市在城镇化进程中的用地竞争格局,并揭示其生态环境效应与贡献因素。结果表明:(1)受主城区立体开发和兰州新区建设影响,城镇生活空间、工矿生产空间快速扩张,重心大幅北移,并出现显著的“爬坡效应”;(2)林地、水域和裸地生态空间出现不同程度增长,草地生态空间大幅萎缩;(3)兰州市生态环境质量总体呈“南高北低”格局,生态改善区面积仅为恶化区的50.76%,耕地和草地的互转是生态环境质量变化的主要贡献因素。基于“三生”空间竞争视角的土地转型与生态环境效应研究,可为河谷型城市开展国土空间格局优化提供依据。
Under the constraint of regional space, the space competition of different function land and the change of ecological environment have the profound impacts on the healthy development of valley cities. Lanzhou City in the upper reaches of the Yellow River was taken as an example to analyze the land competition pattern of valley cities in the process of urbanization and reveal its ecological environment effect and contributing factors according to the classification based on the dominant function of ecology-production-living spaces, based on the land use and DEM data in 1995 and 2018, and using the methods include intensity of area change, type transfer matrix, centroids transfer, alt-slope differentiation, ecological environment quality index and ecological contribution rate of land use function transformation. The results show that:(1)the living space and industrial-mining production space in the urban area expanded rapidly with the centroids moving to the north greatly and showed a significant effect of slope-climbing which was influenced by the three-dimensional development of the main urban area and the construction of Lanzhou new area;(2)the ecological space of forestland, water area and bare land increased at different degrees, and the ecological space of grassland shranked significantly;(3)the overall ecological environment quality of Lanzhou City showed a pattern of ‘high in the south, low in the north' while the ecological improvement area was only 50.76% of the deterioration area; the conversion of cropland and grassland was the main contributing factor to the change of ecological environment quality. The study of land transformation and ecological environment effect based on the spatial competition of ecological-production-living can provide a basis for the optimization of land spatial pattern in valley cities.
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