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基于地形梯度的喀斯特山区景观综合破碎化演变——以贵阳市为例
1, 1,2, 1

(1.guizhoushifandaxue diliyuhuanjingkexuexueyuan, guiyang 550025; 2.kasiteshandishengtaihuanjingbaohuyuziyuanliyongxietongchuangxinzhongxin, guiyang 550025)

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Landscape Fragmentation Evolution in Karst Mountainous Area Based on Terrain Gradient
—A Case Study of Guiyang City

(1.school of geography and environmental science, guizhou normal university, guiyang 550025, china; 2.collaborative innovation center for ecological environment protection and resource utilization in karst mountains, guiyang 550025, china)

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备注

为揭示喀斯特山区景观综合破碎呈现怎样的地形分布规律和演变态势,利用地形位指数、分布指数和生态景观指数及均方差权数法,分析贵阳市25年景观破碎度类型的地形梯度特征。结果表明:(1)贵阳市1990—2015年以高和一般破碎度为主,1990年各占比达42.51%和30.36%,2015年为41.33%和30.56%,且高破碎面积减少94.01 km2,其余3种破碎度类型略有增加。(2)低破碎和一般景观破碎度主要分布在贵阳市中、北及东部,高破碎和剧烈破碎度主要集中在西部和南部。(3)贵阳市各景观破碎有显著地形特征,25年间耕地和水域及建设用地与地形位呈负相关,在1~3梯度均为优势分布,剧烈破碎度内建设用地和水域分布指数大于3,地形位特征比耕地明显; 两期低破碎林草地与地形位成正相关,在中高地形位为优势分布,且高地形位最为突出; 未利用地与地形梯度均呈先增加后减小趋势,高地形梯度时有最大优势分布值。研究结果对客观全面认识喀斯特景观破碎本底具有重要现实意义,为生态环境保护和土地优化提供基础数据支撑,也可丰富不同地形景观破碎时空演变研究。
The objective of this study is to reveal the topographical distribution and evolutionary trend of the comprehensive fragmentation of karst mountainous landscape. We used topographic position index, distribution index, ecological landscape index and mean square error weight method to analyze the terrain gradient characteristics of the 25-year landscape fragmentation types in Guiyang. The results show that:(1)from 1990 to 2015, Guiyang City was dominated by high and general landscape fragmentation, which accounted for 42.51% and 30.36% in 1990, 41.33% and 30.56% in 2015, the area of high fragmentation decreased by 94.01 km2, and the remaining three types of landscape fragmentation increased slightly;(2)low fragmentation and general landscape fragmentation mainly distributed in the middle, north and east of Guiyang City, and high fragmentation and severe fragmentation mainly concentrated in the west and south;(3)the fragmentation of various landscapes in Guiyang City had significant topographical characteristics; in 25 years, the cultivated land, water bodies and construction land were negatively correlated with the topography, cultivated land, water area and construction land in the 1~3 gradient all distributed in a dominant manner; the distribution indices of construction land and water area within the severe fragmentation degree were greater than 3, and the topographic characteristics were more obvious than that of cultivated land; the low-fragmented forest and grassland in the two phases were positively correlated with the terrain gradient, and both were dominant in the middle and high terrain, and the high terrain was the most prominent; the unused land and terrain gradients both increased first and then decreased, and unused land had the largest dominant distribution value at high gradients. This study has important practical significance for the objective and comprehensive understanding of the background of karst landscape fragmentation, provides basic data support for ecological environmental protection and land optimization, and can also enrich the research on the spatiotemporal evolution of landscape fragmentation in different terrains.
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