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基于组合赋权法的焦作矿区生态安全评价与时空分异
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(henanligongdaxue cehuiyuguotuxinxigongchengxueyuan, henan jiaozuo 454000)

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Ecological Security Evaluation and Spatiotemporal Differentiation of Jiaozuo Mining Area Based on Combined Weighting Method
SI Jinjin, WANG Shidong

(school of surveying and land information engineering, henan polytechnic university, jiaozuo, henan 454000, china)

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备注

生态安全评价是生态安全研究的基础和前提,健康的生态环境是区域生态安全的重要体现。以河南省焦作市矿区村级行政区域为研究对象,基于PSR模型建立生态安全评价指标体系,采用层次分析法和熵值法相结合的方式确定权重,运用综合评价模型评估了1999年、2008年以及2018年的安全状况,分析其时间与空间上的变化特征。结果表明:研究区1999年综合指数为29.63,处于生态恶劣状态; 2008年为52.39,处于生态预警状态; 2018年为50.26,也处于生态预警状态,整体生态安全状况呈上升趋势,特别是位于修武县的方庄一矿和方庄二矿的变化幅度较大,而位于辉县市和修武县的古汉山矿的变化幅度最小; 1999—2008年,研究区进行了产业调整和经济转型,对城市环境进行了大力治理,因此在此期间生态安全状况有所好转; 随着时间的推移,煤矿的继续开采以及塌陷区的逐渐扩大,是导致2008—2018年生态安全状况变化不大的主要原因。从空间上看,2008—2018年研究区西北部地区即修武县的方庄矿生态状况优于其他地区,而中西部地区即辉县市的古汉山矿生态状况劣于其他地区。资源环境压力、生态现状和社会经济响应等是生态安全产生变化的主要影响因素。研究结果可为研究区后续生态发展提供参考。
Ecological safety assessment is the basis and premise of ecological safety research. The healthy ecological environment is an important manifestation of regional ecological safety. Taking the village-level administrative area of the mining area in Jiaozuo City, Henan Province as the research site, we established an ecological safety evaluation index system based on the PSR model, determined the weights by the combination of analytic hierarchy process and entropy method, and used the comprehensive evaluation model to evaluate the security situations of the years 1999, 2008 and 2018, and analyze the characteristics of their changes in time and space. The results show that the comprehensive index of the study area in 1999 was 29.63, which was in an ecologically bad state; in 2008, it was 52.39, which was in an ecological early warning state; in 2018, it was 50.26, which was also in an ecological early warning state, and the overall ecological security situation showed an upward trend, especially in the repair area; the Fangzhuang No. 1 mine and Fangzhuang No.2 mine in Wuxian County had changed a lot, while the Guhanshan mine in Huixian City had the smallest change range; from 1999 to 2008, the research area underwent industrial adjustment and economic transformation, and carried out an urban environment as a result of vigorous management, the ecological security situation improved during this period; with the passage of time, the continued production of coal mines and the gradual expansion of the collapsed areas were the main reasons for the small changes in the ecological security situation from 2008 to 2018; from a spatial perspective, the ecological condition of Fangzhuang mine in Xiuwu County in the northwest of the study area from 2008 to 2018 was better than the other areas, while the ecological condition of Guhanshan mine in Huixian City in the central and western areas was inferior to the other areas. Pressure on resources and environment, ecological status and socio-economic response are the main influencing factors on changes in ecological security.
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