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基于能值理论的水资源生态足迹变化特征——以北京市为例
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(zhongguokuangyedaxue(beijing)diqiukexueyucehuigongchengxueyuan, beijing 100083)

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Characteristics of Water Resources Ecological Footprint Based on Emergy Theory
—Taking Beijing as an Example

(college of geoscience and surveying engineering, china university of mining and technology, beijing 100083, china)

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水资源生态足迹是水资源可持续开发利用的研究热点之一,目前研究集中于区域尺度的水资源生态足迹研究。优化水资源生态足迹模型、探究尺度关联问题对区域水资源可持续发展规划十分必要。基于统计数据和格网数据,在传统水资源生态足迹基础上,结合生态学科的能值理论,分别在城市和格网两个尺度探求北京市2005—2018年水资源开发利用变化规律。结果表明:(1)2005—2018年,北京市生态赤字明显。水资源能值生态足迹(WEEF)年均值为0.35 hm2/人,水资源能值生态承载力(WEEC)年均值为0.05 hm2/人;(2)北京市多年处于水资源生态不安全状态,水资源生态压力(WEFI)年均值为7.37,水资源生态经济协调性(WEECI)年均值仅为1.13,水资源生态系统与经济发展的协调性较差;(3)水资源开发利用空间分布不均匀,中心城区水资源生态赤字严重,水资源生态压力(WEFI)达到30以上。周边城区生态压力减缓,平谷区是北京唯一生态安全区。北京市水资源生态安全形势较为严峻,限制人口、调整产业结构、加强节约用水宣传力度、提高节水效率是必要举措。
Water resources ecological footprint is one of the research hotspots in the sustainable development and utilization of water resources. The current research focuses on the study of the ecological footprint of water resources at the regional scale. Optimizing the ecological footprint model of water resources and exploring the problem of scale correlation are necessary for the sustainable development of regional water resources. Based on statistical data and grid data, the changes in the development and utilization of water resources in Beijing from 2005 to 2018 were explored at the city and grid scales by combining with the emergy theory of ecological disciplines on the basis of the traditional water resources ecological footprint. The results show that:(1)from 2005 to 2018, the annual average value of Beijing's water resources emergy ecological footprint was 0.35 hm2 per capita, and the annual average value of water resources emergy ecological carrying capacity was 0.05 hm2 per capita; the ecological deficit was obvious;(2)Beijing has been in a state of ecological insecurity of water resources for many years; the average annual value of water ecological footprint intensity is 7.37, and the annual average value of water resources ecological and economic coordination index is only 1.13; the coordination between water resources ecosystem and economic development is poor;(3)the spatial distribution of water resources development and utilization is uneven, the ecological deficit of water resources in the central urban area is serious, and the ecological pressure of water resources is above 30; the ecological pressure on the surrounding urban areas has eased, and Pinggu District is the only ecological safety region in Beijing. The situation of water resources ecological security in Beijing is relatively severe. It is necessary to restrict population, adjust industrial structure, strengthen publicity on water conservation, and improve water conservation efficiency.
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